Vitamins - simple organic compounds of various nature. Taking part in a huge number of chemical reactions that occur in the body, they perform signaling functions hormones and some prohormones, provide the Catholic function of many enzymes, can act as regulatory intermediaries, ensure the healthy functioning of the central nervous system, etc. These substances play a huge role in the metabolism even despite the fact that they are not an energy supplier.
The fact that some food is able to have a positive effect on the human body was known in antiquity. Ancient Egyptians, for example, used the liver against night blindness. Back in the 14th century, a famous Chinese doctor published a three-volume work on the health benefits of food and drink. In the 18th century, one of the Scottish experts conducted an interesting study. Introducing citrus fruits, which are rich in vitamin C, to the sailors, he managed to protect the sailors from scurvy. James Cook introduced the widespread use of sour cabbage to his sailors, in practice proving the effectiveness of this method of getting rid of gum disease. Since then, useful products against various diseases have been found in such an experimental way.
Thus, depends on the level of vitamins consumed physical and mental performance, the body’s ability to deal with adverse environmental factors, including toxins and infection. The diverse participation of vitamins in the metabolism and the process of ensuring normal human activity no longer leaves specialists in doubt.
The main volume of vitamins enters the body with food, some are synthesized by microorganisms in the intestine. This means that the body secretes both vitamins and provitamins (predecessors), which as a result of certain transformations become vitamins.
Avitaminosis - This is the lack of certain vitamins in the body. This condition can occur due to the long absence of these compounds in the diet, as well as due to some disease, as a result of which the absorption of the gastrointestinal tract is impaired or an environment appears in which increased destruction of the vitamin occurs.
Hypovitaminosis a partial lack of one or another vitamin represents a failure. It proceeds almost imperceptibly, for example, it can manifest itself in the form of impaired performance, lethargy, drowsiness, or even without external manifestations.
Hypervitaminosis - This is a condition of excessive vitamin content in the body. It is observed in the case of an improper diet, usually caused solely by taste preferences, as well as improper intake of vitamin complexes.
For a person who cares about his health, it is very important to understand that the vitamins used in food are not always fully established. Oxidation processes, heat treatment, chemicals, etc. can almost completely destroy all vitamins. To save them, you need to follow a number of simple rules:
- Store vegetables in a cool, dark place.
- Potatoes are best steamed, if in water - then in the peel
- Wash salad under cool running water
- Cooking vegetables is best done in a double boiler or microwave
- Buy only fresh fruits and vegetables
- Peel vegetables just before eating
It's no secret that any vitamin in high concentration can become a poison for the body. Therefore, the excessive consumption of food products, very rich in vitamins, as well as vitamin complexes, not following the instructions, can cause significant harm to health.
To date, about 50 popular vitamins are known, 20 of which are extremely important for health.
Among them are the following:
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin B Group
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin D Group
- Vitamin F
- Vitamin K