Pediculosis (lice) is a disease that is common in all countries of the world. Lice parasitize on the human body, feeding on its blood. There are several varieties of lice. They live on the scalp, can live on linen and clothing, as well as live in the pubic area. In rare cases, lice are also found on other parts of the body where hair grows - on a beard, eyebrows. According to the experience of specialists, a relatively limited number of lice can live on the human body, depending on the amount of blood. The main nutrient for lice is blood and lymph. Lice bite through the skin and saliva is injected into the resulting wound. In the saliva of lice, various microbes that cause dangerous infectious ailments can be contained. So, in this way it can be transmitted fever, typhoid and other diseases. After bites of lice, a person feels severe itching, combing the skin at the site of bites. Lice crawl around.
Pediculosis is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or after using the patient's hygiene items. Lice can also crawl from one head to another in places where people are in relatively close contact: in public transport, in the pool, on the beach. Despite the fact that there is an opinion about pediculosis as a social ailment that is very closely related to hygiene, to this day the reason for the widespread spread of lice among clean people remains unexplored. So, scientists have found that lice are more willing to "settle" on the head with clean hair.
Head lice - these are insects of a grayish-yellow color or transparent, their size reaches 4 mm. Head lice always parasitize mainly on the temples and on the back of the head, and from there they penetrate the remaining parts of the head. For a month, lice can put off ten per day nits (the so-called lice eggs). After 8-10 days, lice larvae appear from the nits. Ten to fifteen days later, an adult louse grows out of the larva, capable of fully laying eggs. Lice can live up to 38 days. Head lice nits are white beads that lice attach to the base of the hair. As a rule, it is the identification of nits that indicates the presence of pediculosis in the patient. The louse eggs are attached so that it is impossible to remove them when washing the hair. It is also very difficult to remove them from the hair. When infected with head lice, the patient strongly combs the skin, which leads to the onset of the inflammatory process and, as a result, to the manifestation of a secondary infection.
Hanging lice - this is the lice of the body. A louse, falling on the human body, sucks blood, piercing the skin. However, she lives in linen and clothes. In the same place, the louse lays nits. Most often, body lice parasitize on human skin on the neck, lower back, between the shoulder blades. After lice bite the skin, light brown pigmentation remains in this place for a rather long period. But the main threat that lice of this species pose to people is their ability to tolerate typhus.
Pubic lice - This is an infection of a person with pubic lice, which is called a ploschita. She lives in the hair, which is located on the pubis, genitals, around the anus. Also, the parasite is found in the hair on the abdomen and in other places. The louse lays eggs on the basis of hair. With the help of a proboscis, the louse itself attaches to the hair follicle, usually on the skin of the scrotum and pubis. It is easiest to become infected with such a disease through sexual contact. Pubic pediculosis can also be transmitted through bedding. Due to bites of lice, a fairly strong sensation of itching appears. Accordingly, a person strongly combes these places, which later appear bluish spots. They appear due to the action of the saliva of the plaques on hemoglobin person. Also, on the underwear of an infected person, small spots may remain on the underwear - this is how the discharge of parasites looks. If a person combes the bite places too much, then infection and, as a result, the appearance of small ulcers. From the time of infection with parasites to the onset of symptoms, the incubation period can be up to 30 days or more.
Diagnosis of lice
In general, pediculosis in children and adults is detected during routine preventive examinations. During a thorough examination of the patient, lice can be seen without additional optical devices. Lice are much more noticeable after they have drunk human blood. If there is a suspicion of pubic lice, then you should look for lice that look like brown spots with a grayish tint. It is located at the very roots of the hair. In a calm state, lice are completely motionless, but if you try to tear off the insect, they begin to actively cling to the hair. It is very difficult to tear them off. In the diagnosis of pediculosis most often in the first place pay attention to nits, which lice attach to the hair.
Complications of Pediculosis
The most serious complication of head lice can be those diseases that carry lice. These are very dangerous infectious diseases - typhus, relapsing fever, quintan.
Effective treatment of lice primarily involves the simultaneous destruction of parasites, both in the hair and on the body, in underwear, clothing, and hygiene items. If a person is diagnosed with pubic lice, then all sexual partners should be treated in parallel to prevent the further spread of the disease. There are a number of special solutions that are used as a remedy for pediculosis. For example, drugs are effective against lice nittyphor, pedilin and others. They should carefully treat all affected areas and after a certain time specified in the instructions for the drug, rinse the solution with hot water using soap. You can rinse your hair with water with the addition of a small amount of acetic acid. A solution of acetic acid should also moisten the comb, which is used to comb out the nits.
Another commonly used method for treating pediculosis is treating hair with kerosene mixed with vegetable oil in a one to one ratio. After processing the hair with such a solution, a bandage with wax paper should be applied to them. You need to hold it for about 12-15 hours. After such a procedure, the head should be washed thoroughly with hot water and soap. After washing, the nits are removed with scallops moistened with vinegar.
A suspension is also used as a remedy for pediculosis. benzyl benzoate. Pediculosis in adults is treated with a 20% suspension, pediculosis in children - 10%. The product should be applied to the hair and rub well into the skin. Thirty minutes later, the suspension is washed off, the hair is washed with shampoo.
To cure head lice, you should first bring lice to bedding. For this, all items must be carefully boiled and ironed on both sides. A person infected with this disease should be thoroughly washed with soap.
Pubic pediculosis is most often treated using special aerosols, adhering to the rules of spraying. Before you need to shave off the entire hairline on the affected area and burn the shaved hair. All patient clothing must be disinfected. In the process of treating pubic lice, a mercury ointment or benlyl benzoate emulsion is often used.
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MedicationNittiforMedifoxPedilinBenzyl benzoateCouple plusChigiaPediculen UltraAvalancheParanitPermethrinAntivHellebore waterPermethrin ointment
The most important rule, which is especially important for the prevention of head lice, is the observance of personal hygiene standards, regular washing of the head and body with the use of appropriate detergents, and a constant change of clothes and linen. If a person suspects the presence of lice, you should immediately contact a specialist who will prescribe a course of treatment and tell you what measures should be taken. In the case of a person having lice, it is very important to carefully examine all family members in order to prevent the spread of parasites. For the purpose of prevention, the hair of children living in children's groups should be constantly examined, since lice are very often spread today in places of large concentrations of children.
List of sources
- Lysenko A.Ya., Vladimova MG, Kondrashin A.B., Majori J. ... Clinical parasitology. Under the general editorship of Lysenko A.Ya. Leadership. Geneva, WHO: 2002
- Delyagin V.M., Rumyantsev A.G., Shugurina E.G. Scabies and pediculosis: old problems in the new time // Medical business. 2007. No. 4.
- Lopatkina Yu. V. Modern antiparasitic therapy of pediculosis // Clinical Dermatology and Venereology. - 2010. - No. 2.
- Clinical recommendations. Dermatovenerology / ed. A.A. Kubanova. M .: DEKS-Press, 2007.