Breast-feeding - the optimal type of nutrition for the child. First of all, this is a manifestation of maternal love, and secondly, an ideal nutritional product of high digestibility with an optimal and balanced level of substances for the child, with the presence of protective factors and biologically active substances, which helps to create a barrier against environmental influences.
It should be remembered that proper nutrition of a nursing mother after childbirth is a guarantee of the baby’s health. It is important to eat a healthy diet. On the one hand, this is a varied, rational and balanced diet, that is, it should contain all the components necessary for the baby (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, iron, vitamin c, calcium, iodine, magnesium, vitamin D, omega 3 and omega 6), and on the other hand - it should be dietary dishes prepared separately for a nursing mother with the exception of frying and fat. Food should be sufficient, even of high calorie content - the first 6 months it is 2700 kcal, in the following months it is slightly less - 2650 kcal.
Why is a woman's nutrition so important? Because with breast milk, the baby receives all the beneficial substances. Protein is the most important food element for the development of the body and its amount consumed by a woman should be 106-110 g. The majority (60%) are animal proteins and 40% are vegetable. Therefore, it is very important to eat meat, fish, dairy products, cereals, nuts and vegetables. True, the amount of protein in milk does not depend on the amount of protein consumed by a woman, and the amount of fats, mineral trace elements and vitamins is precisely related to the amount of these substances in the diet. All the necessary substances enter the milk from the mother’s body even when they are not adequately supplied with food, but the reserves of a nursing woman are depleted.
Magnesium is necessary for the process of protein synthesis and the formation of enzymes; in its presence, calcium is absorbed in the body. Wheat bran, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds are rich in magnesium. Calcium is necessary for the prevention of rickets in the baby, the growth and formation of the skeleton. The key source of calcium is milk, cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt, hard cheeses. But with an allergy in a child to cow's milk protein, dairy products are excluded from the mother’s diet. At first, only milk is excluded and a reaction to dairy products and cottage cheese is observed.
Of course, all these products should be introduced into the diet gradually, since in addition to the nutrients that are useful and necessary for the growth and development of nutrients, a child can also receive allergens with milk. A mother’s diet while breastfeeding should not burden the baby’s immune system and cause swelling and colic. This is especially important for the first 2-3 months, when the baby is developing digestion. In this regard, the diet must be gradually expanded and go from small to large in relation to food.
What should be the nutrition for lactating women? The first month is supposed to be a strict diet, and in the next - careful introduction of new products into the diet. Up to three months, while the baby is prone to colic, you should especially monitor the diet and refrain from foods that cause flatulence. Usually colic begins at 2-3 weeks and ends at 3-6 months.
The basic rules for breastfeeding are:
- Five - six meals a day for the mother (3 main meals and 2 snacks). Eating is best timed to feed - the best time is 30 minutes before it.
- Boiled and steam cooking methods, rejection of fatty and fried foods.
- The use of only freshly prepared natural food, excludes convenience foods, products with dyes and preservatives, all types of canned food.
- The introduction of a large number of dairy products containing calcium.
- Eating lean meats and fish.
- Compliance with the drinking regime - 1.5-1.6 liters per day (purified water, table water without gas, fruit drinks, fruit drinks). Fluid intake is one of the important factors in prolonged lactation. You need to drink a glass of water 10 minutes before feeding. At the same time, you can not drink fluids in excess of the norm, which can cause swelling, stress on the kidneys and excessive production of milk and subsequently lactostasis.
- During lactation, fermentation enhancing products are excluded (legumes, sweets, pastries, kvass, brown bread, bananas, grapes, sweet apples, pickled vegetables, white cabbage, cucumbers, carbonated drinks, pastries, sweet cheeses, curd pastes and sweet cereals).
- Limit the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits, since in this form they increase motility and cause bloating. For this reason, it is better to bake or stew fruits and vegetables and start to eat in small portions, since a large amount of fiber can cause loosening of the stool in the child and bloating.
- Vegetables with coarse fiber and essential oils, which are strong digestive stimulants (radish, radish, turnip, celery, sorrel, mushrooms), are not allowed, and the child can cause bloating and intestinal colic.
By the end of the second or third month, the diet is already expanding significantly, but it is necessary to introduce new products carefully for 3-4 days in a row and observe the baby’s behavior. On the first day, you can eat a small piece of a product, and the next day, examine the skin of the child and observe its general condition. If there are no rashes, redness, or peeling on the skin, you can eat this product in a slightly larger amount on the second day and again observe the reaction. On the third day, the same product is used again and the baby’s condition is assessed, if everything is normal, you can leave this product in the diet.
Such a long administration is necessary because an allergic reaction may not occur immediately. The next new product is tested in the same way. Keeping a food diary and monitoring the child’s reaction to new products will help to accurately and, most importantly, detect the allergic factor in time.
Monthly diet of a nursing mother
For convenience, a table has been compiled that includes allowed and prohibited products.
Lactating diet, the table for months looks like this:
|Month||Allowed products and their sequence of administration||Not Recommended Products|
Perhaps 1 month will seem the most difficult not only in terms of nutrition, but also adaptation to the regime of breastfeeding and nightly rises. From the first days, chocolate, coffee, ice cream and condensed milk, sweets, pastries and confectionery will be abandoned. Raw vegetables, legumes and fried foods are prohibited. You need to learn how to cook diet meals and think more about your baby than about your eating habits and desires. It is important to observe the drinking regimen. From the fourth, the amount of liquid is 800-1000 ml.
If milk comes quickly and there is a lot of it, it is possible to slightly reduce the volume of liquid. From 10 days after birth, you need to add 0.5 cups, bringing to 1.5-2 liters until the end of the month. All this time to monitor the condition of the breast: it should be painless and soft.
The diet of the nursing mother in the first month includes light soups on vegetable broth or weak chicken, without frying. It can be cereal or vegetable soups. It is not allowed to eat borsch, cabbage soup, hodgepodge, okroshka and pickle, in view of the presence of cabbage and cucumbers in them. The main dishes are usually porridge or stewed vegetables with a slice of boiled chicken, since beef and fish are allowed to be consumed later. Do not forget that salt should be limited, and all dishes prepared without spices, so the food in the first month will be tasteless and monotonous.
For the most part, the list of products can expand faster than indicated in the table. It all depends on the individual reaction of the newborn to certain products. And the mother herself can decide how to eat her, based on observations of the baby’s reaction. And how can she eat, the child can “tell” with his behavior, intestinal state or refusal to feed, if the taste of milk has changed, and he did not like it. But we can say for sure that the first three months you can not eat honey, jam, chocolate, eggs, red fruits and vegetables, bakery products, fatty, sour and salty.
In case the mother is predisposed to allergies, it is likely that the child will also be hypersensitive to foods. In such cases, you need to be more careful about nutrition. In case of an allergic reaction (reddening of the cheeks, dryness and skin peeling in the knees and elbows) the product should be excluded for a month, and then try to introduce it again, so that the body gradually adapts to this allergen. Please note that chocolate, fatty and smoked foods, canned food and alcohol are banned for the entire period of breastfeeding.
In conclusion, it must be said that it is forbidden for nursing mothers to arrange fasting days, to take a mono diet or a low-calorie diet. It is dangerous for the child and does not need the mother. At this time, it takes about 500 kcal to produce milk, and if you eat right and connect physical activity over time, then the extra pounds will go away.
Insufficient nutrition of the mother can lead to the fact that there will be an insufficient amount of milk, and the child will not receive enough nutrition. In this case, a hungry stool appears in the baby - excessively watery and even close in consistency to water. This type of stool disorder can be determined by the dynamics of weight - the child gains it poorly (less than 450 g per month, and by two weeks did not gain weight at birth), signs of dehydration appear (sunken fontanel), the baby is lethargic and sleeps a lot. You also need to do a wet diaper test. With a sufficient amount of milk, the child urinates 10 times a day. In this case, urination is reduced, urine becomes concentrated and has a pungent odor, and its volume is small. On the Internet you can find a photo of this pathological feces. The stool in the child is formed gradually, since it takes time for the intestines to colonize with useful microbes. Usually this happens within a month, for some longer.
Diet for breastfeeding a newborn includes:
- Wheat bread of the 2nd grade (preferably with bran), drying, dry cookies, not very sweet biscuit and crackers made of gray bread.
- Various cereals (with caution corn and pearl barley) can also be cooked with the addition of 1/3 of milk, make steam puddings, casseroles with cottage cheese.
- Low-fat varieties of meat and fish are allowed (beef, veal, rabbit, chicken, pollock, pike perch, bream, blue whiting, cod, hake, perch) in the form of steam cutlets and a whole piece. Preference should be given to white poultry, and fish should be consumed no more than 1-2 times a week.
- Includes vegetarian soups and soups on a weak (secondary) meat broth. In the first dishes it’s good to take potatoes, carrots, cauliflower and zucchini. In soups, you can add meatballs, dumplings, pieces of boiled meat.
- At least 400 g of boiled or fresh vegetables (if the child is well tolerated) are introduced into the diet as sources of vitamins and fiber. Preference is given to neutral vegetables: carrots, beets, zucchini, squash, pumpkin. They are boiled, you can make cutlets or stew from them. Fresh vegetables are best consumed in green, while brightly colored vegetables are thermally processed using soups or stews. However, you need to start eating vegetables with boiled or stewed.
- It is recommended to start eating fruits with apples, then introduce other types, but not very sour. Fruits need to choose green or white color, you can drink baby juices, baby fruit purees, as well as baked apples and pears. During the day, a nursing mother should eat 300 g of fruits and berries (pears, apples, currants, gooseberries, cherries) and drink 200-300 ml of juice (preferably with pulp). They can be freshly prepared or canned. In this case, you need to choose juices from a series of baby food. You can eat baked apples and pears, as well as drink jelly and stewed fruits from them. Dried fruits are rich in dietary fiber, so prunes and dried apricots can be entered carefully, observing the baby's stool.
- If the baby is prone to constipation, it is necessary to eat dried fruits, also review the mother’s diet and partially replace animal fats with vegetable oils, as well as include more fiber (vegetables, cereals, fruits, whole-grain bread).
- The daily diet should include 600-800 ml of dairy products (acidophilus, natural yogurt, kefir, yogurt) and cottage cheese or dishes from it. 200 ml milk and sour cream are allowed only as an additive to the dish. It is better to alternate milk and dairy products. If we talk about the fat content of these products, then optimal is 2.5%, and cottage cheese - 5-9%. Zero-fat foods are not suitable for lactating women.
- Of the confectionery, you can rarely afford meringues, fruit marmalade, marshmallows, marshmallows.
- A day you can eat 25 g of butter, 15 g of vegetable (corn, sunflower, olive, soy).
- Drinks include tea without aromatic additives (weak black or green), teas with mint, oregano, thyme, occasionally weak coffee, table water without gas, fruit drinks and fruit drinks.
Approved Product Table
|Proteins, g||Fats, g||Carbohydrates, g||Calories, kcal|
Vegetables and greens
|sweet baked apples||0,5||0,3||24,0||89|
Nuts and dried fruits
Cereals and cereals
|buckwheat groats (kernel)||12,6||3,3||62,1||313|
|white bread crackers||11,2||1,4||72,2||331|
|fruit and berry marmalade||0,4||0,0||76,6||293|
|sour cream 15% (low fat)||2,6||15,0||3,0||158|
|fermented baked milk 2.5%||2,9||2,5||4,2||54|
|natural yogurt 2%||4,3||2,0||6,2||60|
Cheeses and cottage cheese
|cottage cheese 5%||17,2||5,0||1,8||121|
|cottage cheese 9% (bold)||16,7||9,0||2,0||159|
Oils and Fats
Juices and compotes
|* data are per 100 g of product|
Fully or partially restricted products
The postpartum diet for nursing mothers excludes:
- Highly allergenic products which include: fish, seafood (especially crabs, shrimps), crayfish, fish caviar, eggs, mushrooms, nuts (walnuts can be), coffee, chocolate, honey, cocoa, citrus fruits, bright red and orange fruits. Highly allergenic foods include peanuts and tomatoes.
- Products that enhance fermentation in the intestine are completely excluded (any legumes, coarse vegetables, whole milk, rye bread, yeast dough products, kvass). Therefore, soups from legumes, cabbage soup and borscht are excluded from the diet in view of the presence of cabbage, pickle and okroshka, in view of the presence of fresh and pickled cucumbers.
- Products with essential oils (garlic, celery, onions, garlic, radishes, radishes, spinach) and citrus fruits.
- Rich broths, fatty meats, fish, poultry, marinades, smoked meats, canned meat and fish, sausages, spicy dishes, spices.
- All tropical fruits (except bananas).
- Products containing dyes and preservatives.
- You can not eat whole milk, fermented cheeses.
- Cooking fat, pork and beef, margarine.
- It is not allowed to use chocolate, cream cakes, carbonated drinks, kvass.
- Alcohol and low alcohol drinks, energy.
During feeding, the newborn is limited to:
- Whole milk - it is allowed as an additive in cereal, and sour cream only in dishes in small quantities.
- Bakery products of premium flour, pasta and semolina.
- Confectionery, all kinds of sweets.
Prohibited Products Table
|Proteins, g||Fats, g||Carbohydrates, g||Calories, kcal|
Vegetables and greens
Raw materials and seasonings
|cured / dried sausage||24,1||38,3||1,0||455|
Fish and seafood
Oils and Fats
|dry instant coffee||15,0||3,5||0,0||94|
Juices and compotes
|the grape juice||0,3||0,0||14,0||54|
|* data are per 100 g of product|
Menu (Power Mode)
The diet, starting from the second month, is more diverse, since it already includes beef, chicken, fish and a rabbit, the list of cereals is also expanded. Vegetables are still stewed or boiled. The following is a sample menu.
|For the night|
|For the night|
|For the night|
Advantages and disadvantages
Feedback and Results
Of course, the diet of a nursing mother during breastfeeding has many limitations and it is not easy to observe, but this is a necessary condition for breastfeeding. No matter how difficult it is, each mother is ready for anything to see the child healthy. This food is good for mom and baby. The main thing is that it is complete, high-calorie and safe for the child, since potential allergens are excluded.
In their reviews, many note that they strictly adhered to the diet for up to 3 months, and proper nutrition helped to reduce the excess weight that appeared during pregnancy.
- "... Mom helped me with the child and cooked salads, snacks or sauerkraut. I ate, and then the baby cried midnight from colic. Believe me, don’t have a spoonful of salad with mayonnaise or a handful of grapes crying for a child, you don’t need to think about yourself, but about a baby. I stopped all these feasts and for half a year the slow cooker became a lifesaver - quickly and well. I do everything in it and constantly expand the base of recipes. Since the child is already the second, and the family is large, I try to attach everyone to such a diet";
- "... I followed a strict diet only 2 months, then I ate everything, but within reasonable limits. It was summer, how could you do without vegetables and fruits? Colic, of course, was, like all babies, but not critical. Well helped massage tummy with oil Chicco for massage. I believe that it is difficult to find a universal diet and the main thing at first is not to eat allergens: chocolate, coffee, citrus fruits, strawberries and nuts, and later gradually expand the diet";
- "... When the child was on HB, the first 3 months followed a diet, and then ate everything, but more or less dietary, and monitored the reaction of the baby. I didn’t notice that any product affected his well-being. I lost weight during this time and weigh less than before pregnancy".
The diet contains regular and affordable foods, from which diet dishes can be prepared without much difficulty. Relatively expensive are beef, chicken, rabbit and fish. All other products are inexpensive. The cost of food for a week can be 1400-1500 rubles.